Biology EE – 32/34 (A)

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본 문서는 2022년도에 작성했던 Extended Essay이며, 선택 과목은 Biology이고 주제는 “An investigation of the antibacterial efficacy of oral hygiene products on the growth of Lactobacillus salivarius, in vitro” 입니다. IBO에서 34점 만점 32점을 받아 최종 A를 받았습니다.

 

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IB Extended Essay
An investigation of the antibacterial efficacy of oral hygiene products on the growth of Lactobacillus salivarius, in vitro

 

Research question:

Do daily oral hygiene products, such as toothpaste, xylitol, and oral rinse, possess comparable antibacterial efficacy against Lactobacillus salivarius to antibiotics, such as amoxicillin?

 

1. Introduction

1.1 Research question

Do daily oral hygiene products, such as toothpaste, xylitol, and oral rinse, possess comparable antibacterial efficacy against Lactobacillus salivarius to antibiotics, such as amoxicillin?

 

1.2 Context

The human oral cavity is the habitat to a wide community of over 700 microbial species, including commensal and opportunistic bacteria, such as archaea, fungi, viruses, and protozoa (Deo 2019). Oral microbiota is found in saliva, the surface of gum tissue and teeth, and in biofilms, layers of glue-like membranes made up of exopolysaccharides (Choudhary 2020). According to studies from the Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, a millimeter of saliva contains around 108 microbial cells in the oral cavity (Willis 2020). These microbes play “a crucial role in maintaining oral homeostasis, protecting the oral cavity, and preventing disease development.” (Deo 2019) However, when food high in carbohydrates are consumed and teeth are not cleaned properly, disease-causing pathogenic bacteria can grow, multiply, and cause tooth decay.

The idea of this in vitro investigation stemmed from my prior experience of being prescribed amoxicillin for my dental caries. Amoxicillin exhibits a penicillin antibiotic effect by destroying the cell wall mucopeptide (Fookes 2020) and inhibiting multiplication of bacteria, especially Streptococcus mutans, in the oral cavity. Intrigued by its effectiveness in treating dental infections while taking this medication, I wanted to delve further into researching amoxicillin.

Studies, however, found that the overuse of amoxicillin in the dentist made about 14.9% of S.mutans strains to develop resistance over time (Al-Shami 2019) because within natural variations among a bacterial population, including amoxicillin-resistant and -sensitive S.mutans, the over-exposure of amoxicillin through continuous dental usages has made the resistant bacteria survive and multiply. Consequently, the offspring may inherit the amoxicillin-resistant genes from its parent, reducing effectiveness of amoxicillin. Hence, this finding has led me to research alternative methods of treating dental caries…

 

  • 총 페이지수: 39 pages
  • 과목명: Extended Essay (Biology)
  • 주제: An investigation of the antibacterial efficacy of oral hygiene products on the growth of Lactobacillus salivarius, in vitro
  • The file is in PDF format.
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Biology EE – 32/34 (A)

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