Extended Essay in Physics A

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IB Extended Essay in Physics에서 점수 A(Raw 29점)를 받은 Paper입니다.

May 2020 자료이며, ‘Rotational movement and flow regimes – How does the volume of material in a cylinder affect its velocity?’에 관한 주제로 작성되었습니다.





1. Introduction

1.1 Background and Significance

As I am interested in mechanical engineering, I wanted to focus on rotational dynamics, which is not part of my IB Physics course. While rotational dynamics can be comparatively simple, it quickly becomes complex once small changes are made to a system such as adding granular materials or liquids inside a rolling cylinder.

Inspired by a YouTube video (“Rotational inertia”), I tried rolling a cylinder filled with sand, and I observed something interesting. When a cylinder is fully filled sand or completely empty, it rolled down the ramp smoothly, as expected. However, when it was filled about half-way, it slipped, or did not move at all. Experiencing this phenomenon, I decided to explore what factors are making this occur and how rotational movement happens in partially filled cylinders.

The material and geometrical properties of the sand are what determine the sand’s behavior at the contact points with the cylinder. Supported by these conditions, the granular materials act like various states of matter, deformed as solids, flowing like liquids, or compressed like gases, leading to different analysis. A pile of sand at rest, for example, behaves like a solid; even though gravitational forces causes macroscopic stresses on its surface (Heydenrych), the material remains at rest. When the cylinder is tilted to a certain degree, grains inside it start to flow…


  • 총 페이지수: 30 pages
  • 과목명: Physics
  • 주제: Rotational movement and flow regimes
  • The file is in PDF format.
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Extended Essay in Physics A

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