IB Economics SL IA: Macroeconomics (7점)

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본 문서는 2019년에 작성한 Macroeconomics IA 과제입니다.
Progressive Tax의 장단점을 꼬집어 분석한 에세이입니다.
해당 주제에 관심있으신 분들은 참고하셔서 작성하면 좋을 것 같습니다 🙂
파이널 7점 받았습니다!



In Sweden, 70 percent tax rate is a given


The newly minted lawmaker is proposing to lift the top marginal tax rate to 70 percent on incomes starting at $10 million. The idea has drawn both praise and jeers from across the political spectrum.

For a real world example, critics and fans alike should look to Sweden. The Nordic country has a marginal tax wedge – the difference between the cost to the employer and what a worker takes home – of 69.7 percent on salaries above $79,000. That’s almost 30 percentage points higher than in the U.S., and it kicks in a lot earlier than Ocasio-Cortez is proposing.

Critics of high taxes claim the policy stifles economic growth by reducing the incentive for people to work. But Sweden’s employment rate is 77.5 percent, beating the U.S.’s 71 percent. The Nordic country has also surpassed the U.S. in terms of economic growth this decade, expanding 2.7 percent a year, on average, compared with 2.2 percent for the U.S.

Ocasio-Cortez, 29, is a former campaign worker for Sen. Bernie Sanders who has held up the virtues of the Nordic economic model. She wants to raise taxes to pay for programs to fight inequality and climate change and provide health care for all, benefits already enjoyed by Swedes and many Europeans. As a result, income equality is notably higher in the region than in the U.S.

Inequality, and its impact on growth, has become one of the key issues explored by economists in the post-financial crisis world. A recent paper by economists Peter Diamond and Emmanuel Saez calculated that the optimal top tax rate would be about 73 percent.

High taxes have gained acceptance in Sweden and across the Nordic region, where citizens enjoy state-funded access to services such as child care and education. Losing out on those benefits, even if take-home pay grows, is considered too great a risk.

“Taxes are never collected just for the purpose of collecting more taxes,” said Olli Karkkainen, an economist at Nordea Bank. “What matters is what the taxes are used on.”

In the Nordic countries, the negative effects of high taxes are compensated for by the services that tax money buys – for instance promoting employment by supporting child care, he said.

The difference between taxes in Sweden and the U.S. becomes less stark when one looks at low- income workers…


  • 총 페이지수: 4 pages
  • 과목명: Economics
  • 주제: Macroeconomics IA – Progressive Tax
  • The file is in PDF format.
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IB Economics SL IA: Macroeconomics (7점)

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